In the southwestern part of modern Vinnytsya city there is a beautiful Vyshnya (Cherry) Estate. That is the Nicholas Pirogov Estate Museum. More than 150 years ago it was a small village not far from a bigger town. Pirogov was an outstanding scientist of 19th century, a genius surgeon, an annatomist, a founder of the bettle-field surgery and the modern war medicine, a lecturer, an aducator and a public active figure.
He was an autor of many famous scientific researches and treatises: "The Annals", "The Complete Course in Applied Anatomy", "The Pathologic Anatomy of Asian Cholera", "The Basic of the Field Military Surgery" and others. In his last years he wrote his memoirs "The Old Doctor`s Diary...". The Russian Academy of Sciencerewarded him with four Demidov Awards.
In the Crimean War and Sevastopol defense campaign (1854-1855) Nicholas Pirogov worked as a military surgeon. After his invaluable and extensive experience in the Crimea, he became "the father of battle-field surgery". The new osteoplastic method of amputation of the foot, developed by him, known as the "Pirogov amputation". Famous Russian army doctor was the first in the world, who used anethesis in the battle field (during the defense of Sevastopol). N.Pirogov introduced a system of triage into five categories. He was an organizer of Russian female volunteers into the corps of nurses. Grand Duchess Yelena Pavlovna, the leader of the organization of nurses, became "a Russian Florence Nightingale".
The Scientist lived and worked in Central Ukraine also for 25 years. In 1861, when he was discharged from the post of administrator in Kiev educational district, Pirogov settled in Vyshnya Estate, where he continued his scientific and public activity, and where his last years passed.
Private Vinnytsya guides will show you the main line of the Museum, where is a small chemist`s shop with the interior and displays that resemble the time when Pirogov founded the first in Podillya region rural hospital. In that chemist`s shop the medidicines were given free of charge if a doctor wrote on a receipt, "For the poor person". The wax figures display the scenes of the outstanding doctor`s life in Central Ukraine. The museum is situated in the nice park.
Nicholas Pirogov died of the cances on November, 23, 1881. Doctor D.Vyvodtsev (from St. Peterburg) embalmed his body. On January, 24, 1882, his body was taken to a vault that was built by Pirogov`s wife. In 1885 a church was built over it. Its project was developed by a Kyiv acadamician architect V.Sychugov.
On October 27, 1944, the goverment decreed about the immortalization of N.Pirogov`s name. It included the descision to found a museum in the estate and keep the remains of the prominent surgeon. On September 9, 1947, a ceremony of the museum`s foundation took place. In 65 years after Pirogov`s death his body was re-embalmed, and at the time of USSR, that procedure was periodically repeated by the scientists from the Scientific and Research Laboratory at the Department of Health (Moscow).
This memorial has become famous all aver the world, and over 7 million people from 169 countries have visited it. The museum is one the most important objects of Ukraine`s cultural heritage. It is included in the State Register of monuments and architectural items of national importance. Its memorial park is a lanscape art monument.
Many events are held at the museum, such as guest conferences of the Ukrainian Academy of Medical Sciences, Pirogov lectures, congresses and scientific conferences.
Sevastopol defense (1854-1855) at the Crimean War
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